Chronology of Rhetoric


b.c.e. -- before current era
c.e. -- current era
ca. -- circa, around, there abouts. Often precise dating is impossible
fl. -- flourit, signifies the flourishing or highpoint of someone's career, typically refers to the highest concentration of references to events that would seem to indicate activity by a single recognizable individual

1050–950
Ionians colonize coast of Asia Minor aka Anatolia (present-day Albania, Turkey, Syria)


776
First Olympic Games

753
Traditional date for founding of Rome

By 750
Greek alphabet developed from Phoenician-Hebrew prototype


By 700
Homeric Epics, Iliad, Odyssey


594
Solon archon of Athens; law code of Solon


509
Rise of Roman republic

507
Cleisthenes introduces democratic reforms in Athens


499
Start of the Persian wars (ended 448)

487
Athenian archons chosen by lot


480-411
Antiphon, author of The Tetralogies, paired arguments for and against.
476

Thrasybulus, tyrant of Syracuse, overthrown. Corax and Tisias. The first techne.

ca.470
Aeschylus and Sophocles tragedians

463
Pericles begins public career in Athens. Beginning of Athenian "Golden Age"

461
Athenians institute radical democracy; First Peloponnesian War.

ca.441
Euripides, tragedian

fl.440
Protagoras, Prodicus, Hippias of Elea, sophists


431
Start of the Peloponesian war, war between Athens and Sparta (ended 404, with the temporary destruction of democracy in Athens)

430
Pericles' Funeral Oration
Outbreak of plague that ultimately killed 30,000 Athenians (and who knows how many non-citzens)

429
Death of Pericles; Cleon leads Athens

428–427
Revolt of Lesbos; Athenian expedition to Sicily


427
Gorgias of Leontini, sophist, arrives with embassy to Athens.


ca.427
Birth of Plato


425
Aristophanes, comedian, begins career; Death of Herodotus


423
Aristophanes, The Clouds
407
Plato joins the circle of Socrates

404
End of the Peloponnesia War, Athens defeated, oligarchy sponsored by Sparta is established in Athens.

ca.400
Other rhetoricians flourishing about this time: Evenus of Paros, Callippus, Pamphilus, Lycophron, Polus, Licymnius, unknown author of Dissoi Logoi.

399
Trial and death of Socrates


Isocrates (Isocrates active 390s-338).


393
Isocrates opens his school at Athens

391
Isocrates xiii, Against the Sophists

384
Births of Demosthenes and Aristotle

380
Plato, Gorgias

367
Aristotle joins Plato's Academy
First plebeian consul elected to assembly at Rome; plebeians become eligible to serve as magistrates and thus eventually to enter the Senate.

ca. 360
Plato, Phaedrus. Introduction of the Roman praetorship, a civil and juridical office that freed the consuls for military affairs.


353
Isocrates iv, Antidosis

347
Death of Plato

341
Anaximines, Rhetoric to Alexander

338
Philip defeats Athenians and Thebans at Chaeronea. Conventional end of Greek "liberty."
Death of Isocrates

335
Aristotle settles at Athens, founds Peripatetic School near Lyceum. Produces Rhetoric Bks. I-II. Preceded by the Organon: Categories, On Interpretation, Topics, Prior Analytics, Posterior Analytics. Followed by On Sophistical Refutations, Nichomachean Ethics, Politics, Poetics, and Rhetoric Bk. III. Lost works: Synagoge technon; Rhetoric to Theodectes; Gryllus


323
Death of Alexander, beginning of the "hellenistic age", constant battles among Alexander's generals for dynastic control, spread of Greek language, culture, and education.

322
Athenian constitution altered; oligarchy imposed, enforced by Macedonian garrison
Death of Aristotle (384-322), Demosthenes (384-322). Hyperides, Funeral Oration for Athenian dead in last battle against Macedon.

ca. 300
Theophrastus; On Characters.

ca. 250
Demetrius, On Style.

161
Rome expels all rhetoricians and philosophers.

ca. 150 Hermagoras of Temnos. Credited with introduction of stasis system of invention.

ca. 110 - 40
The Epicurean philosopher Philodemos writes, On Rhetoric

106 Birth of Cicero

92 Crassus issues edict forbidding the teaching of rhetoric in Latin

86
Cicero, De inventione.

ca 86 - 83
Rhetorica ad Herrunium

Born 53
Dionysious of Halicarnassos is born. Moves to Rome around 30 B.C.E.
Most important works, Prologue to the Ancient Orators and Critical Essays, On Literary Composition

55
Cicero, De oratore

53
Death of Crassus

49-45
Civil War

46
Cicero, Brutus, Orator

43
Death of Cicero.

B.C.E

C.E.

14
Emperor Tiberius. Traditional beginning of "second sophistic."

37 Nero is born

ca. 40
Seneca the Elder, Suasoria and Controversiae.

40-120
Dio Cocceianus Chrysostomus of Prusa.

42- 118
Quintilian.

ca. 50
Longinus, On the Sublime.

ca. 55 - 117
Cornelius Tacitus, Dialgoue on Oratory (written 75)

ca. 60
Dionysius of Halicarnasus.

80-90
Quintilian appointed head of state school of oratory in Rome.

88-144
Polemo (Marcus Antonius) of Smyrna.

92-95
Quintilian, Institutio oratoria. Tacitus, Dialogue on Oratory.

c. 120 - 180)
Lucian (Lucianus of Samosata). "The Parasite".

117-187
Aelius Aristides

160 - 210 CE
Sextus Empiricus, Phyronian skepticism. Against The Rhetoricians.

ca 170
Philostratus, Lucius Flavius

ca. 175
Hermogenes of Tarsus, Techne, including On Staseis and On Qualities of Style.

ca 314 - ca 394
Libanius of Antioch

330
Founding of Constantinople.

395
Division of Roman Empire into East (Constantinople = Byzantium) and West (Rome)


395-430
Augustine bishop of Hippo

ca. 400
Apthonius, Progymnasmata.

407
John Chrysostom, Orations (d. 407)

410
Fall of Rome to Vandals.